The content of this article is very large, so we had tried to summaries them, keeping in mind to not to ignore any important point and give you required details about bike. Also, this article is divided into few parts and the links of all parts will be provided here once it is published.

  • Chassis
  • Engine
  • Transmission and drive
  • Wheels and tyres
  • Additional features


    It is the structure of a bike which includes the frame, suspension and front fork of a bike.


    A frame is the structure or skeleton of a bike which holds all the components together in order to perform a specified required operation in a desirable manner. The frames are typically made from welded Aluminum or steel alloys. Some expensive custom frames are also made from carbon fiber, titanium, and magnesium. companies like Ducati use carbon fiber for the frame.

Types of frame: –

  • Spine or backbone:

    It is one of the most basic and cost-effective types of motorcycle frame. This frame is in the shape of the spine and keeps all the other parts in compact, not full-fledged for holding different components. The amount of steel used is very lesser as compared to other type frames, though these frames are economical but don’t have very good strength or torsional rigidity. It is used in low-cost bikes e.g.- Hero Honda cd100 series bikes.

  • Diamond frame or single cradle frame: –

    This frame is very much similar to your bicycle frame and got its name due to its shape also the design is very cost-effective. Diamond frames are very commonly found on Indian bikes. Although such design seems to be weak, but actually it is quite strong. Here the engine is the part of the frame and it is the stressed member of the frame which is actually helpful in keeping engine steady.

    E.g.- (Bajaj Pulsar 135LS), (Hero CBZ Xtreme, Achiever & hunk), (Honda CB Twister and Shine.) etc.…

  • Double cradle frame:

    While a single cradle frame has one steel tube going down to support the engine, a double cradle frame has two tubes going down to support the engine. These frames have some advantages over single cradle in terms of strength and rigidity.

    E.g. (Bajaj Platina, Discover, Pulsar 150/180/220), (Hero Deluxe, Splendor, Passion, Glamour), (TVS Apache RTR 160 &180), Yamaha Crux.

  • Trellis frame:

    Trellis frames are formed by welding pipes into a cage-like arrangement. Unlike the other frames, these frames don’t have a backbone, down tube or cradle element. The main objective of this frame is to connect the steering head with the swing arm as direct as possible. Trellis frames use a bunch of short sized steel or aluminum tubes welded together to form a trellis-like structure.

    E.g.- KTM Duke 200 and in some models of Ducati.

  • Perimeter frame: –

    These are the most commonly used frame types in sports bikes, these frames are also known as Twin Spar frame. Design of the frame is inspired by bike racing that suggests that a bikes rigidity is improved significantly if you join its steering head to the swing-arm in the shortest distance possible.

  • Monocoque frame: –

    Monocoque frames are typically used in cars – they’re built in highly robotized, capital-intensive plants, and are generally more expensive to make unless you have an enormous economy of scale. However, for certain extreme motorcycles, the entire skeletal structure is finished as a single, super-stiff piece of metal, and is termed as a monocoque frame.

    1.2. Suspensions of a bike and front fork

In general, all motorcycle has a pair of Telescopic suspensions at the front and one or two spring loaded hydraulic suspensions at the rear end. Name of some general suspensions given below.

you can also read look on another article on superbikes of BMW

(front fork)

  • Telescopic suspension:

    It is the most basic and successful suspension type, nowadays it is used in almost every motorcycle. Telescopic suspensions consist of a primary slider and a fork tube. The fork is filled with oil and the damper rod in center uses to damp the unnecessary vibrations. Fork tube is rolled with spring which provides better shock absorption and increases comfort level on the bike.

  • Telescopic suspension (upside down USD) forks:

    These are also known as inverted forks and installed inverted in compared to conventional telescopic forks. It is used in sports bikes like Honda Valkyrie. Advantages: –

    Decreases the unsprung weight of the bike and 

    Increase torsional stiffness which improves handling 

    Disadvantages: – more expensive 

    If oil seal fails, they losses all their damping oil.

(rear suspensions)

  • Spring loaded hydraulic suspension:

    Also known as pre-load adjustment. In these suspensions’ springs are always compressed, even when fully extended. Pre-load is used to adjust the initial position of suspension with the weight of motorcycle and rider action on it. This breaking system follows the hydraulic laws. Liquid oil is used as a suspension base for this suspension.

  • Gas-filled or nitrox charged shock absorber:

    Because of cavitations, Spring loaded hydraulic suspensions are not so durable and dependable at the long journeys. To solve this problem a canister filled gas is added with spring loaded hydraulic suspensions. Generally, the gas which is used for this suspensions nitrogen and for this it is called Nitrox suspension. Major work of this gas is to prevent the formation of bubbles which are created inside the oil chamber. Because of this pressurized gas cavitations not occurred and for this reason at long journeys this suspension becomes more dependable, this Gas canister can also be used as the store of gas and oil.

And there are some other types of suspension too which are available in the market and you can find about them in Wikipedia too.

Anmol Tiwary
Hello reader this is Anmol Tiwary. I am a mechanical engineer by profession. I love to gather information about technology and share them. My aim is to work for green energy as much as possible and create awareness for it. I am also a can contact me @ [email protected]


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